The Introduction of Life

The creation of life on earth requires soil, sunlight, water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen.

God provided the sunlight first then He prepared the atmosphere with the formation of the firmament.

Now science and common sense tells us that there is a BIG difference between wild and domestic life, both in the plant and animal realm. There is the story of a Russian botanist working on taming certain wild rye by altering the DNA sequences with very little results. The DNA switches are what changes the look, nature, color, flavor and growth of lifeforms. The chromosomes will be the same but the DNA sequencing is what changes groups within species.

Wild plants have from 4 to 12 chromosomes while domestic plants have up to 80 chromosomes. Why the difference? Because God made them different. They can be domesticated with significant DNA alterations by processes not known until quite recently.

Wild plants do not require nurturing and can survive very well without human intervention. But, domestic plants require cultivating, watering, culling and pruning to produce good fruit. Some fruit and grains are cross bred (genetically altered) as hybrid varieties to grow in different climes and season lengths.

The chromosome numbers for some popular plants is listed below:
Arabidopsis thaliana (diploid) = 10;
Rye (diploid) = 14; Maize (diploid) = 20; Einkorn wheat (diploid) = 14;
Durum wheat (tetraploid) = 28; Bread wheat (hexaploid) = 42; Potato (tetraploid) = 48;
Cultivated tobacco (diploid) = 48; Adder's Tongue Fern (diploid) = approx 1,400;

Wolves can be tamed for generations but they maintain their wild instincts. In experiments scientist have found that when placing food in one of two buckets on either side of a human the domestic dogs looked to humans for guidance. Whereas the wolves would go directly to the bucket with the food even if the human pointed to the other bucket. They did not rely on humans for direction even though the were tame for generations. This is an instinct needed to survive in the wild.

My belief is that wolves are dogs that went feral because the opposite has proven that they can be tamed but not domesticated.
Dogs were pretty much dogs until the early 1800's when cross-breeding animals with same face, ear, or nose shape produced like kind, and different face, ear, or nose shape produced different kinds. Then they went for leg and body length, coloring, work instincts. Now there are so many dog breeds and they are still changing every year. No other animal has been bred for changes as many times as the domestic dog.

Cattle are also cross bred for higher milk or better beef production but unlike a dog they maintain their basic shape. Their shape is pretty close to normal in body dimensions as well as head shape, leg and tail length.
The Holstein cow for instance originated in Europe about 2000 years ago. The original stock were the black animals and white animals of the Batavians and Friesians which when interbred caused genetic mutations that switched certain genes on and off producing the distinctive black and white spotted cattle.
Some holsteins are red and white due to a recessive gene and are called red & whites and are bred only with cattle that have the recessive mutation to create a separate breed.

Some Chromosome numbers (2n) in diploid animals is listed below :
Common fruit fly = 8; Guinea Pig = 64; Earthworm Octodrilus complanatus = 36;
Domestic cat = 38; Laboratory mouse = 40; Laboratory rat = 42;
Human = 46; Gorillas, Chimpanzees = 48;
Cow = 60; Donkey = 62; Horse = 64; Dog = 78.

Human cells are diploid and have 22 different types of autosome, each present as two copies, and two sex chromosomes (gametes). This gives 46 chromosomes in total but arranged in pairs. Humans from different races appear to have the same DNA sequence and only the alleles can be mapped to determine their hereditary characteristics. The allele determines the blood type, eye, hair, and skin color, and can determine a person's ancestral continent of origin.

Other organisms have more than two copies of their chromosomes, such as bread wheat, which is hexaploid and has six copies of seven different chromosomes - 42 chromosomes in total.
Some chromosome abnormalities do not cause disease in carriers, such as translocations, or chromosomal inversions, although they may lead to a higher chance of birthing a child with a chromosome disorder. Abnormal numbers of chromosomes or chromosome sets, aneuploidy, may be lethal or give rise to genetic disorders.

The gain or loss of DNA from chromosomes can lead to a variety of genetic disorders. Human examples include:
Down's syndrome, usually is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 (trisomy 21);
Turner syndrome (X instead of XX or XY). In Turner syndrome, female sexual characteristics are present but underdeveloped;
XYY syndrome. XYY boys are usually taller than their siblings.
Like XXY boys and XXX girls, they are somewhat more likely to have learning difficulties;
Triple-X syndrome (XXX). XXX girls tend to be tall and thin.

The evolutionist are thrilled with new genome discovery that primates have 24 pairs of chromosomes, but humans have 23 pair with the appearance that chromosome 2 is fused. This, they conclude, is proof that we evolved from apes. Man's wisdom is but foolishness to God! Kenneth R. Miller is the leader of this latest quest to debunk a Creator, citing a genome study by Richard K. Wilson, Ph.D., director of the Washington University School of Medicine's Genome Sequencing Center.

This study states that there is no doubt that Human chromosome 2 is widely accepted to be a result of an end-to-end fusion of two ancestral chromosomes in the scientific community. The evidence for this includes:
* The correspondence of chromosome 2 to two ape chromosomes. The closest human relative, the bonobo, has near-identical DNA sequences to human chromosome 2, but they are found in two separate chromosomes.
* The presence of a vestigial centromere. Normally a chromosome has just one centromere, but in chromosome 2 we see remnants of a second. * The presence of vestigial telomeres. These are normally found only at the ends of a chromosome, but in chromosome 2 we see additional telomere sequences in the middle.

Researcher J. W. IJdo claims, "We conclude that the locus cloned in cosmids c8.1 and c29B is the relic of an ancient telomere-telomere fusion and marks the point at which two ancestral ape chromosomes fused to give rise to human chromosome 2."

Jorge J. Yunis, Jeffrey R. Sawyer and Kelly Dunham produced an article "The Striking Resemblance of High-Resolution G-Banded Chromosomes of Man and Chimpanzee." [Science, Vol 208, 6 June 1980, pp. 1145-8]. They applied a new agent called giemsa stain to the chromosome complements of 46 chromosome man and 48 chromosome chimpanzee and made a detailed comparison of their banding patterns.

Their new stain was able to resolve more than a thousand bands in the chromosomes of each species, revealing a similarity so close that they found it difficult to account for the phenotypic differences. In their article, they provided a diagram of the chromosome comparisons, showing the similarities and differences. Among these differences was the revelation of nine pericentric inversions. Chromosome inversions are known to result in semi-sterility when crosses are made to individuals without the inversion. Since there are nine of these, and since a cross with only one inversion results in semi-sterility, it's not possible to cross a human being with a chimpanzee and produce the missing link. Like pairing a 62 chromosome donkey with a 64 chromosome horse, you get a 63 chromosome sterile mule, they would instead get a 47 chromosome sterile mutant.

OK, when was the 2 chromosomes fused and how did 23 ever pair up with 24? Did the 24 fuse the 2nd chromosome to accomplish this? They could not and would not. Why did it take all these steps from pairing a 23 pair chromosome mutant with a Chimpanzee, through Pliopithecus, Pronconsul, Dryopithecus, Oreopithecus, Ramapithecus, Australopithecus, Paranthropus, Advanced Australopithecus, Homo Erectus, Early Homo Sapiens, Solo Man, Rhodesian Man, Neanderthal Man, & Cro-Magnon Man, to get to Modern Man if a fused chromosome is the proof? I have a more simple answer. It couldn't!

To try take God, the Creator, out of the picture is impossible. There is no way a 23 chromosome human could pair up with a 24 chromosome partner and reproduce without intervention. If they accidentally did, the resultant would be a sterile offspring not a different species. Remove the intervention and they would revert back to 24 pair primates. This was proven in lab tests with fruit flies. They would genetically mutate the fruit fly for up to 10 generations and when they stopped, surprise! The fruit fly reverted to it's old unaltered self.

The question remains, did the 2nd fuse with another on one pair but not the other? Or did both pairs fuse at once? Even in the womb, we are still looking at two pairs of 24 chromosomes that have to fuse matching pairs. This theory is as plausible as the first 2 presented here. Anyone that would buy into this road apple theory is receptive to any "old wives tale."

OK, why am I telling you this? Because there are two creations for plants and animals but only one of humans. In Genesis 1:9-11, God spoke the vegetation, the wild plant life, into existence. In Genesis 2:5, 8 He planted a garden of domestic plants.

In Genesis 1:21 on day five (5) God created the fish and the wild birds. In Genesis 1:24,25 on day six (6) God created the wild animals.

In Genesis 2:19 Out of the ground the LORD God FORMED every domestic beast of the FIELD and every domestic bird of the air, and brought them to Adam in the Garden to see what he would call them. And whatever Adam called each living creature, that was its name. So Adam gave names to all cattle, to the birds of the air, and to every beast of the FIELD. I believe that field would differentiate the domestic from the wild.
That is why we have wild beasts which were never in the garden and Adam never saw them until he was expelled. The domestic animals were the clean animals created in the garden and pets because it wasn't good for man to be alone.

If my understanding is wrong then there has to be an explanation of how man could manipulate differing chromosomal numbers and genetic switching to domesticate wild animals and plant life with his limited knowledge of genetic makeup or was this how evolution occurred?

So what really happened? It's as simple as believing that God created the wild and domestic plants and animals separately and He created humans and when He cursed Adam and Eve, for their sin of "the knowledge of evil" in the Garden, He had to do something genetically to pass on the curse to future generations. Here is where God, the Creator fused chromosome 2 ensuring that the curse would be passed on. They would be banished from the Garden and the man would have to cultivate new fields and gardens with domestic plants amidst the wild plants of weeds and thistles. All humans would have a sinful nature because of the chromosomal alteration He placed on Adams offspring and thus all mankind with the curse.

"According to its kind" is the Genetic makeup with like number of chromosomes and like DNA sequencing, to be altered only by the Creator God. Made "in His own image" could read "according to Our likeness" allowing the possibility of man and God reproducing. This is how our Savior Jesus came to dwell among us. This only happened once and it was to reconcile man with the Creator of the whole universe. Our resurrected bodies may bear resemblance of both man and God similar to "His glorious body." (Phil 3:21)

"Then God said, 'Let the earth bring forth the living creature according to its kind: cattle and creeping thing and beast of the earth, each according to its kind'; and it was so. And God made the beast of the earth according to its kind, cattle according to its kind, and everything that creeps on the earth according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. Then God said, 'Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.' So God created man in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. Then God blessed them, and God said to them, 'Be fruitful and multiply; fill the earth and subdue it; have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over every living thing that moves on the earth.'" (Gen 1:24-28)

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